11th-century Architecture

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11th century in architecture
See also: 10th century in architecture, 12th century in architecture and the architecture timeline.


Abbasid architecture
Abbasid architecture developed in the Abbasid Caliphate between 750 and 945, primarily in its heartland of Mesopotamia. The Abbasids inherited Persian architectural traditions in Mesoptamia, and were later influenced by Central Asian styles.
Acheiropoietos Monastery
The Acheiropoietos Monastery (Greek: Μονή Ἀχειροποίητου) in Lambousa near the village of Karavas in the Kyrenia District, was a medieval Byzantine Orthodox Monastery. The monastery is currently being used by the Turkish military as an encampment and warehouse.
Aisha Bibi
The Aisha-Bibi is an 11th or 12th-century mausoleum for a noble woman located in the village of Aisha Bibi, 18 km (11 mi) west of Taraz, Kazakhstan on the Silk Road. It is locally famous as a monument to love and faithfulness.
Alcazaba of Almería
The Alcazaba of Almería is a fortified complex in Almería, southern Spain. The word alcazaba, from the Arabic word al-qasbah, signifies a walled-fortification in a city.
Alcazaba of Málaga
The Alcazaba is a palatial fortification in Málaga, Spain. It was built by the Hammudid dynasty in the 11th century.
The Aljafería Palace (Arabic:قصر الجعفرية Qasr Aljafariya, Spanish: Palacio de la Aljafería) is a fortified medieval Islamic palace built during the second half of the 11th century in the Moorish taifa of Zaragoza of Al-Andalus, present day Zaragoza, Spain. It was the residence of the Banu Hud dynasty during the era of Abu Jaffar Al-Muqtadir after abolishing Banu Tujibi of Kindah dynasty.
All Saints Church West Farleigh
All Saints is a parish church in West Farleigh, Kent. It was begun in the 11th century and is a Grade I listed building.
Augsburg Cathedral
The Cathedral of Augsburg (German: Dom Unserer Lieben Frau) is a church in Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany, founded in the 11th century in Romanesque style, but with 14th century Gothic additions. Together with the Basilica of St.


Baisigou Square Pagoda
Baisigou Square Pagoda (Chinese Chinese: 拜寺沟方塔; pinyin: Bàisìgōu Fāngtǎ) was a brick pagoda in Helan County, Ningxia, China, built during the Western Xia period (1038–1227). It is situated in an isolated location about 10 km into the Baisigou Valley on the eastern side of the Helan Mountains, northwest of Yinchuan, but may have been the site of an important Buddhist temple during the Western Xia. The pagoda was illegally destroyed in 1990; archaeological investigation of the ruins has uncovered a large number of Tangut artefacts and Buddhist relics, including books and manuscripts written in the Tangut language and script.
Beni Hammad Fort
Beni Hammad Fort, also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (Arabic: قلعة بني حماد‎) is a ruined, fortified palatine city in Algeria. It served as the first capital of the Hammadid dynasty.
Bhutanatha group of temples Badami
The Bhutanatha group of temples is a cluster of sandstone shrines dedicated to the deity Bhutanatha, in Badami town of Karnataka state, India. There are two major temples here.
Burana Tower
The Burana Tower is a large minaret in the Chuy Valley in northern Kyrgyzstan. It is located about 80 km east of the country's capital Bishkek, near the town of Tokmok.
Buscheto (Pisa-Italy, XI–XII) was an Italian architect. He designed the plans for Pisas Cathedral Square that created the distinct Pisan Romanesque design style used throughout the square.


Castle of Castellano
The Castle of Castellano (German: Schloss von Kastellein) is a manor house built around 1000, located in the village of Castellano, in the municipality of Villa Lagarina, in Trentino. It is one of the most famous castles of Vallagarina, offering a panorama of the entire valley.
Castle of Molina de Aragón
The Castle of Molina de Aragón (also called alcázar or alcazaba) is a fortification in Molina de Aragón, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. It was declared Bien de Interés Cultural in 1931.
Castle of Sant'Aniceto
The Castle of Sant'Aniceto (also San Niceto) is a Byzantine castle built in the early 11th century on a hill in Motta San Giovanni, now in the province of Reggio Calabria, southern Italy. It is one of the few examples of High Middle Ages architecture in Calabria, as well as one of the few well-preserved Byzantine fortifications in the world.
Château d'Amboise
The royal Château at Amboise is a château located in Amboise, in the Indre-et-Loire département of the Loire Valley in France. Confiscated by the monarchy in the 15th century, it became a favoured royal residence and was extensively rebuilt.
Château d'Usson
The Château d'Usson is one of the so-called Cathar castles in what is now southwestern France. It is located in the commune of Rouze, in the Ariège département.
Château de Tours
The Château de Tours, is a castle located in Tours, Indre-et-Loire, France. Built in the 11th century, the building displayed an architecture of the Carolingian period, and was the residence of the Lords of France.
Château des Adhémar
The Château des Adhémar stands on a hill in the centre of the French town of Montélimar in the Drôme département.
Chiesa di Santa Maria di Costantinopoli
Chiesa di Santa Maria di Costantinopoli is located in the Li Curti district of Anacapri, on the island of Capri, Italy. Built in the eleventh century and restored in the seventeenth century, its architectural features include Gothic and Byzantine elements.
Church of El Salvador Toledo
The Iglesia de El Salvador is a church in Toledo, Spain, dating to 1041 or possibly earlier. It initially was a mosque and it is therefore oriented south-east, in the direction of Mecca.
Church of Sant Vicenç
Saint Vicenç is Catalan-Lombard style church in Cardona, Catalonia, Spain. It is located at the top of a fortified hill.
Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin Sompting
The Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, also known as St Mary the Virgin Church and St Mary's Church, is the Church of England parish church of Sompting in the Adur district of West Sussex. It stands on a rural lane north of the urban area that now surrounds the village, and retains much 11th- and 12th-century structure.
Church of St Mary The Virgin Ston Easton
The Anglican Church of St Mary The Virgin in Ston Easton, Somerset, England is a Grade II* listed building dating from the 11th century, with a 15th century embattled 3-stage west tower. The most striking interior feature is the Norman chancel arch, with semi-circular head and colonettes.
Church of St. Mary (Corneilla de Conflent)
St. Mary is a church in Corneilla-de-Conflent, southern France.
Civic Tower (Pavia)
The Civic Tower (Torre Civica) was a tower built in the Italian city of Pavia in the 11th century, next to Pavia Cathedral. Built to a rectangular footprint, it was 78 metres high.


Fatimid architecture
The Fatimid architecture that developed in the Fatimid Caliphate (909–1167 CE) of North Africa combined elements of eastern and western architecture, drawing on Abbasid architecture, Byzantine and Coptic architecture and North African traditions; it bridged early Islamic styles and the medieval architecture of the Mamluks, introducing many innovations. The wealth of Fatimid architecture was found in the main cities of Mahdia (921–948), Al-Mansuriya (948–973) and Cairo (973–1169).
Fengguo Temple
Fengguo Temple (simplified Chinese: 奉国寺; traditional Chinese: 奉國寺; pinyin: Fèng Gúo Sì) is a Buddhist temple located in Yixian, Liaoning Province, China. The temple was first founded in 1020 during the Liao Dynasty (915-1125), and grew quite large during the subsequent centuries.


Graues Haus (Oestrich Winkel)
Graues Haus (literally: The Grey House) is a Romanesque house in Winkel in the Rheingau, Germany. It is assumed that it was erected in the late 10th century and is therefore among the oldest stone houses in Germany.
Great Zimbabwe
Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the rugged south-eastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo, close to the Chimanimani Mountains and the Chipinge District. The site is not far from the country's border with Mozambique, which is located in the southeast of the African continent. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe during the country’s Late Iron Age. The monument first began to be constructed in the 11th century and continued to be built until the 14th century, spanning an area of 722 hectares (1,780 acres) which, at its peak, could have housed up to 18,000 people. Great Zimbabwe acted as a royal palace for the Zimbabwean monarch and would have been used as the seat of their political power. One of its most prominent features were its walls, some of which were over five metres high and which were constructed without mortar. Eventually the city was abandoned and fell into ruin.


Jain Temple Lakkundi
The The Jain Temple, Lakkundi (or Jain Basadi) is located in the historically important temple town Lakkundi in the Gadag District of Karnataka state, India. Known as Lokkigundi in medieval times, the town was of considerable importance during the 11-12th century A.D.
Jørlunde church
Jørlunde church (Danish: Jørlunde kirke) is a late Viking age / early medieval church situated in Jørlunde, Denmark. The church was built by Skjalm Hvide around the year 1085.


Kalleshwara Temple Hire Hadagali
The Kalleshwara temple (also spelt Kalleshvara or Kallesvara) is located in the town of Hire Hadagali in Bellary district of Karnataka state, India. The temple was constructed by Demarasa, prime minister (or mahamatya) to Western Chalukya Empire King Somesvara I (who had the honorific Trailokya Malladeva or "Lord of three worlds"), who reigned from 1042–1068 CE.
Kasivisvesvara Temple Lakkundi
The Kasivisvesvara temple (Kannada: ಕಾಶಿವಿಶ್ವೇಶ್ವರ ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನ ) (also spelt Kashivishveshvara) and sometimes called Kashivishvanatha (Kannada: ಕಾಶಿವಿಶ್ವನಾಥ ದೇವಸ್ಥಾನ ) temple is located in Lakkundi, in the (Gadag district) of Karnataka state, India. It is 11 km from Gadag city, 24 km from Dambal and about 50 km from Kuknur.
Konye Urgench
Konye-Urgench (Turkmen: Köneürgenç, Russian: Куня Ургенч, from Persian Kuhna Gurgānj کهنه گرگانج) also known as Konya-Urgench, Old Urgench or Urganj, is a municipality of about 30,000 inhabitants in north-eastern Turkmenistan, just south from its border with Uzbekistan. It is the site of the ancient town of Ürgenç (Urgench), which contains the unexcavated ruins of the 12th-century capital of Khwarezm.
Ksar Nalut
Ksar Nalut (Arabic: قصر نالوت‎) or Ksar Lalot is a fortified granary, or ksar, located in Nalut, Nalut District in Western Libya, at 31.8680N 10.9855E. Like other ksour created by North African Berber communities, it is located on a hilltop to help protect it from raiding parties in previous centuries.
Kundgolalso spelled as Kundagol (Kannada: ಕುಂದಗೋಳ ) is a panchayat town in Dharwad district in the Indian state of Karnataka.


Liaodi Pagoda
The Liaodi Pagoda (traditional Chinese: 料敵塔; simplified Chinese: 料敌塔; pinyin: Liàodí Tǎ; Wade–Giles: Liaoti T'a) of Kaiyuan Monastery, Dingzhou, Hebei Province, China is the tallest existing pre-modern Chinese pagoda and tallest brick pagoda in the world, built in the 11th century during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). The pagoda stands at a height of 84 metres (276 ft), resting on a large platform with an octagonal base.
Lingxiao Pagoda
The Lingxiao Pagoda (Chinese: 凌霄塔; pinyin: Língxiāo tǎ; Wade–Giles: Linghsiao T'a) is a Chinese pagoda west of the Xinglong Temple in Zhengding, Hebei Province, China.


Maguelone Cathedral
Maguelone Cathedral (Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Maguelone or Cathédrale Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul de Maguelone) was the cathedral of the former Bishop of Maguelone until 1563, when the see was transferred to the newly-created Bishopric of Montpellier. Now a totally isolated structure, it is situated on the once easily defensible peninsula that was the site of the original city of Maguelone, opposite the present Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone, Hérault, France.
Mamluk architecture
Mamluk architecture was a flowering of Islamic art during the reign of the Mamluks (1250–1517 AD) which is most visible in old Cairo. Religious zeal made them generous patrons of architecture and art.
Mezquita de las Tornerías
The Mezquita de las Tornerías (original Arabic name: al-Mustimim) is a former mosque in Toledo, Spain. It was built in the middle of the 11th century, after the example of the Mosque of Cristo de la Luz (999).
Mitford Castle
Mitford Castle is an English castle dating from the end of the 11th century and located at Mitford, Northumberland. It is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and a Grade I listed building, enlisted on 20 October 1969. The castle is also officially on the Buildings at Risk Register. The Norman motte and bailey castle stands on a small prominence, a somewhat elliptical mound, above the River Wansbeck.
Monastery of Sant Daniel Girona
The Monastery of San Daniel (Catalan: Monestir de Sant Daniel) is a religious complex in Girona, Catalonia, northern Spain. It was founded in the early 11th century by will of countess Ermesinde of Carcassonne, who wanted to found a nunnery here.
Muralla urbana de Marbella
The Muralla urbana is a fort in Marbella, southern Spain. It was built in the 11th century.


Nanesvara Temple Lakkundi
The Nanesvara Temple, (also spelt Naneshvara or Naneshwara) is a mid-11th century Later Chalukya construction (also called Western or Kalyani Chalukya). It stands across the street from the ornate Kasivisvesvara temple in the famous temple town of Lakkundi in the Gadag district of Karnataka state, India.


Old Church of St Nicholas Uphill
The Old Church of St Nicholas at Uphill, Somerset, England dates from around 1080, and was built on the site of previous places of worship. It stands on a cliff top overlooking Brean Down and the mouth of the River Axe.


Pagoda of Fogong Temple
The Sakyamuni Pagoda of Fogong Temple (simplified Chinese: 佛宫寺释迦塔; traditional Chinese: 佛宮寺釋迦塔; pinyin: Fógōng Sì Shìjiā Tǎ) of Ying County, Shanxi province, China, is a wooden Chinese pagoda built in 1056, during the Khitan-led Liao Dynasty. The pagoda was built by Emperor Daozong of Liao (Hongji) at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Phnom Chisor
Phnom Chisor (Khmer: ប្រាសាទភ្នំជីសូរ) is a 133 m high hill in Sla village, Rovieng commune, Samraŏng District, Takéo Province, Cambodia. It rises about 42 km south of Phnom Penh.
Ponte della Maddalena
Ponte della Maddalena (Italian: "Bridge of Mary Magdalene") is a bridge crossing the Serchio river near the town of Borgo a Mozzano in the Italian province of Lucca. One of numerous medieval bridges known as Ponte del Diavolo, the "Bridge of the Devil", it was a vital river crossing on the Via Francigena, an early medieval road to Rome for those coming from France that was an important medieval pilgrimage route.


Rudkhan Castle
Rud-khan Castle (also Rood-khan Castle) is a brick and stone medieval castle in Iran.


San Baudelio de Berlanga
The Hermitage of San Baudelio de Berlanga (Ermita de San Baudelio de Berlanga) is an early 11th century church situated at Caltojar, province of Soria, Spain, 80 km south of Berlanga de Duero. It is an example of Mozarabic architecture and was built in the 11th century, in what was then the frontier between Islamic and Christian lands.
San Caprasio
San Caprasio is a church in Santa Cruz de la Serós, Jacetania, Spain, in First Romanesque style.
San Clemente Abbey
The Abbey of San Clemente a Casauria is an abbey in the territory of Castiglione a Casauria, in the province of Pescara, Abruzzo, central Italy.
San Giovanni Battista Praiano
The Church of San Giovanni Battista (Italian: Chiesa di San Giovanni Battista) is a church located in the center of Praiano, a small comune located on the Amalfi Coast in southern Italy. Constructed in the Romanesque style, San Giovanni Battista has a rectangular plan and a vaulted ceiling, featuring Italian Baroque design elements on the inside.
San Giovanni Theristis
The Monastery of San Giovanni Theristis is an Orthodox Christian monastery in Bivongi, Calabria, southern Italy. It is part of the Romanian Orthodox Diocese for Italy.
San Martín de Tours Church Frómista
San Martín de Tours is a church in Frómista, province of Palencia, Spain. Built in the 11th century in Romanesque style, it is located across the Way of Santiago.
San Pietro a Grado
San Piero a Grado (Italian: Basilica di San Piero Apostolo) is a church in Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, in the eponymous frazione. The church is located where once was a now disappeared port of the Pisan Republic, where, according to the legend, St.
San Zan Degola
The church of San Zan Degolà, which in Venetian dialect abbreviates for San Giovanni Decollato, in English St John (the Baptist) beheaded, is an Byzantine-Romanesque style church and belltower in the sestiere of Santa Croce in Venice, Italy. It was built prior to the 11th century, and contains some of its original medieval frescoes.
Santa Maria della Piazza
Santa Maria della Piazza is a church in Ancona, central Italy. The church, a fine example of Romanesque architecture in the city, was erected between the 11th and the 12th centuries.
St Andrew's Church Bywell
St Andrew's Church, Bywell, is a redundant Anglican church in the village of Bywell, Northumberland, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade I listed building, and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust.
St Botolph's Church Hardham
St Botolph's Church is the Church of England parish church of Hardham, West Sussex. It is in Horsham District and is a Grade I listed building.
St George's Church Eastergate
St George's Church is an Anglican church in the village of Eastergate in West Sussex, England. It is the ancient parish church of Eastergate, although since 1992 it has been administered as part of a joint ecclesiastical parish with the churches in neighbouring Barnham and Aldingbourne.
St John the Baptist's Church Harrietsham
St John the Baptist's Church is a parish church in Marley Road, Harrietsham, Kent dedicated to John the Baptist. It was begun in the late 11th century or in the 12th century and works continued to the 15th century.
St Margaret's Church West Hoathly
St Margaret's Church (dedicated in full to St Margaret of Antioch) is an Anglican church in the village of West Hoathly in Mid Sussex, one of seven local government districts in the English county of West Sussex. By the late 11th century, a simple single-room stone building existed on the high, open ridge upon which the village developed.
St Mary de Haura Church Shoreham by Sea
St Mary de Haura Church is an Anglican church in the ancient "New Shoreham" area of Shoreham-by-Sea in the district of Adur, one of seven local government districts in the English county of West Sussex. It was founded at the end of the 11th century as a large cruciform church which, due to its original scale, has been described as a collegiate church—a reflection of the port of Shoreham's importance at the time.
St Mary the Virgin's Church North Stoke
North Stoke Church, rededicated in 2007 to St Mary the Virgin after its medieval dedication was unexpectedly rediscovered, is a former Church of England parish church in the riverside hamlet of North Stoke in the Horsham District of West Sussex. The partly 11th-century cruciform building, set in an almost deserted village in a loop of the River Arun, is mostly unrestored and stands on an ancient earthwork which has pre-Christian origins.
St Mary's Church Hunton
St Mary's Church is a parish church in Hunton, Kent. It was begun in the late 11th or the 12th century and is a Grade I listed building.
St Mary's Church West Chiltington
St Mary's Church is the Grade I listedAnglican parish church of West Chiltington, a village in the Horsham district of West Sussex, England. The 12th-century building, described as a "showpiece" and "the most attractive part" of the Wealden village, retains many features of historical and architectural interest.
St Peter's Church Wickham Bishops
St Peter's Church, Wickham Bishops, is a redundant church in the village of Wickham Bishops, Essex, England. It has been designated by English Heritage as a Grade II* listed building, and is cared for by the Friends of Friendless Churches.
St. Peter am Perlach
St. Peter am Perlach or Perlach-Church is a romanesque Catholic church in the center of Augsburg (Bavaria).


Trapessac (Turkish: Darbı Sak Kalesi) is a medieval fortress located 4 km north of the town of Kırıkhan in Hatay Province, Turkey. Trapessac was constructed in the 11th century by the Knights Templar and, together with the nearby fortress at Bagras, guarded the Syrian Gates, the principal pass between the coastal region of Cilicia and inland Syria.
Trifels Castle
Trifels Castle (German: Reichsburg Trifels) is a medieval castle at an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft) near the small town of Annweiler, in the Palatinate region of southwestern Germany. It is located high above the Queich valley within the Palatinate Forest on one peak of a red sandstone mountain split into three.
Tripurantaka Temple
The Tripurantaka Temple (also called Tripurantakesvara or Tripurantakeshwara) was built around c. 1070 CE by the Western Chalukyas.


Ujigami Shrine
Ujigami Shrine (宇治上神社, Ujigami-jinja?) is a Shinto shrine in the city of Uji in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. The shrine was built as a guardian shrine for the nearby Byōdō-in, and is adjacent to the Uji Shrine.


Wupatki National Monument
The Wupatki National Monument is a National Monument located in north-central Arizona, near Flagstaff. Rich in Native American ruins, the monument is administered by the National Park Service in close conjunction with the nearby Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument.

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